History of agriculture in China

In 1949, the structure of social production and national income of China's agriculture accounted for about 70%. During the years of post-revolutionary development of the relative importance of agriculture has decreased, but its position as a primary sector of the economy remained, it remains the main supplier of raw materials for light industry (70%). Employment in rural areas is 313 million, and with the families of some 850 million people., Which is 6 times higher than in Russia, Japan, England, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico combined.

The scale of production agriculture of China is one of the largest in the world. One of the main features of agriculture is a constant shortage of land. Of the 320 million hectares of cultivated land can be used only 224 million hectares, while arable land area is about 110 million hectares, accounting for about 7% of the global arable land. According to the Chinese classification only 21% of the land fund refers to a highly productive. This is primarily plains Seero-East China, the middle and lower basin of the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and the Sichuan Basin. These areas have favorable conditions for crop production: prolonged vegetative period, high amounts of active temperatures, abundant rainfall, which allows you to grow two, and in the far south of China, even three crops a year.

Agriculture of the country traditionally concentrated primarily grain orientation, grain is 3% of the diet of the country, and the main food crops are rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, millet, soybeans. About 20% of cultivated area occupied by the rice, accounting for about half of the grain harvest in the country. The main rice-growing areas are located to the south of the Yellow River. Over the long history of rice cultivation in China was derived about 10 thousand varieties. Wheat-the second most important cereal crop in the country, began to spread to the VI-VII centuries. To date, no country in the world is not going to such high yields of wheat in China, in addition to a large number of cultivated sweet potatoes (yams), the tubers are rich in starch and sugar.

Under China essential technical cultivation crops. As a result, the current price structure of their production is much more profitable than grain, cotton, fruits and vegetables, even in spite of the fact that to grow, such as cotton China is the third largest in the world. Also widespread cultivation of oilseeds, key sources of dietary fat. Chief among them are peanuts, sesame and pabs (grown in Shandong Province).

Not least to China and the growing of tea that is used as a remedy to the IV century BC, and from the VI century it became a common drink. Until now, most varieties of green and black tea is almost exclusively for export. Tea is grown in the provinces of Zhejiang, Hunan, Anhui, Ftszoy.

The high population density and intensive use of land resources are recognized primarily on the development of animal husbandry, whose role is generally insignificant. In China, historically two types of livestock. One is closely linked with agriculture and is ancillary character, in the agricultural plains bred mainly pork, draft, draft animals and birds. The western areas have extensive, nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralism. The production and consumption of livestock products especially in per capita is low. The most developed pig, known in China as early as BC, accounting for about 90% of total meat production. A characteristic feature of animal husbandry in China is the high proportion of the working poor development of livestock and dairy farming.

China is the world's largest producer of many agricultural products. Recent years have been very favorable for the development of agriculture and the entire rural economy. In general, the success of the industry, was provided mainly high yield of grain (435 million tons of grain in 1995-the highest level in the history of production). Besides increased yield of cotton and oilseeds. Great efforts are being made to the development of agriculture, accelerate the establishment of bases. Steadily growing and animal husbandry, although the main branch continues to be pig. To date, China ranks second in the world in the production of meat.